Immigration Specialists London

UK Visa Statistics 2023 reveal critical insights into Britain’s evolving immigration landscape, spotlighting trends in work, study, and family visa applications. This year’s analysis is particularly compelling, reflecting post-pandemic recovery and Brexit’s ongoing impact. From UK tourist visa success rate 2023 to the growing demand for skilled worker visas, this guide offers a comprehensive understanding of visa outcomes. It serves as a valuable resource for understanding the UK’s appeal as a global destination for education, work, and family reunification.


UK Visa Statistics 2023

1. Overview: UK Visa Statistics 2023


In 2023, the UK processed a significant volume of visa applications, totaling 3,596,156. This high number highlights the UK’s attractiveness as a destination and reflects the effectiveness of its immigration policies.

The overall success rate for visa applications stood at 83%, demonstrating the UK’s balanced immigration strategy which combines welcoming policies with rigorous regulations.

UK Visa Success Rates 2023: Key Routes

  • Work Visas:
    • 95% approval on 508,821 applications, reflecting a 76.5% growth.
  • Sponsored Study Visas:
    • 98% approval on 642,702 applications, showing a 34.4% growth.
  • Family Visas:
    • 86% approval on 70,040 applications, with a 58.9% increase.
  • Visitor Visas:
    • 77% approval on 2,012,116 applications, highlighting a 154.9% increase.

Trends and Implications

  • Growth in Applications:
    • There was a 90% increase in applications across all visa categories, indicating the UK’s growing influence in global mobility.
  • Sector-Specific Insights:
    • The disparities in success rates among different visa categories shed light on the UK’s priorities in economic, academic, and family-related immigration.

Economic and Political Influences

  • Global and Local Dynamics:
    • The visa statistics mirror the UK’s adaptation to global trends and its economic and socio-political adjustments, particularly in the aftermath of the global pandemic.
  • Strategic Immigration Policies:
    • The data illustrates how the UK strategically aligns its immigration policies to bolster its workforce, enrich its academic contributions, and facilitate family reunification, supporting its broader economic and diplomatic goals.

These statistics not only underscore the UK’s role on the international stage but also its strategic management of immigration in response to global and local demands.

Detailed Visa Statistics Analysis

Work Visas Breakdown

  • Total: 508,821 applications, 95% granted.
  • Worker Visas: 97% approval, over 100% increase.
  • Temporary Worker Visas: 94% approval, 27% increase.
  • Investor, Business, and Talent Category: 95% approval, 30% increase.
  • Other Work Visas and Exemptions: 84% approval.

Study Visas Breakdown

  • Total: 642,702 applications, 98% granted.
  • Sponsored Study Visas: Exceptional approval rate at 98%, 34.9% increase.
  • Other Study Category: 58% approval, 9.6% decrease.

Family Visas Breakdown

  • Total: 70,040 applications, 86% granted.
  • EEA and EUSS Family Permits: Low success rates at 19% and 41% respectively, indicating specific policy constraints.
  • BN(O) Route: 97% approval, 45.4% decrease.
  • Ukraine-centric Schemes: Significant increases (91.9% and over 4000%) reflecting geopolitical responses.

Visitor and Other Visas

  • Visitor Visas: Over two million applications with a 77% success rate, highlighting a 154.9% increase.
  • Transit and Other Visas: 86% success rate on 39,441 applications, showing a 10% decrease.

These specific data points illustrate the variances across different visa categories and underscore the UK’s strategic immigration objectives, catering primarily to its labor market needs and academic enrichment while applying more stringent criteria to family reunification and visitor entries. This approach reflects the broader socio-economic strategies aiming to enhance the UK’s global standing in a post-pandemic landscape.

UK Visa Statistics 2023 Key Facts
Snapshot: Key Trends In Uk Visa Statistics 2023 – A Dive Into Work, Study, Family, And More.

2. UK Visitor Visa Success Rate 2023


The statistics for the UK Visitor Visa in 2023 highlight a compelling picture of the country’s appeal and the complexities of the visa process.

  • Total Applications:
    • 2,012,116
  • UK Visitor Visa Success Rate 2023:
    • 77%
  • Refusals:
    • 440,737
  • Insight:

UK Visitor Visa Success Rate 2023: Analysis and Trends

Visitor Visa

  • UK Tourist Visa Success Rate 2023: 77%.
  • The significant growth of 154.9% in this category reflects the UK’s enduring attraction as a destination for tourism, business, and short stays.
  • This surge could be attributed to eased travel restrictions, major global events hosted in the UK, or a marketing push promoting UK tourism.

Transit and Other Visas

  • Approval Rate: 86%.
  • Despite a 10% contraction in this category, the approval rate remains high.
  • Factors influencing this trend might include changes in global travel dynamics, the emergence of new travel hubs, or alternative travel routes post-pandemic.

UK Visitor Visa Success Rate 2023 by Country

Here are the UK visa success rates by country for 2023 for nationalities making the most number of applications:

  1. India
    • Applications: 588,777
    • Applications resolved: 577,017
    • Applications granted: 484,445
    • Grant rate: 84%
    • Refusals: 89,748
  2. Nigeria
    • Applications: 150,836
    • Applications resolved: 155,729
    • Applications granted: 92,753
    • Grant rate: 60%
    • Refusals: 62,314
  3. China
    • Applications: 124,689
    • Applications resolved: 116,490
    • Applications granted: 106,843
    • Grant rate: 92%
    • Refusals: 8,838
  4. Pakistan
    • Applications: 122,536
    • Applications resolved: 127,964
    • Applications granted: 81,480
    • Grant rate: 64%
    • Refusals: 46,126
  5. Turkey
    • Applications: 110,592
    • Applications resolved: 108,426
    • Applications granted: 89,011
    • Grant rate: 82%
    • Refusals: 19,187
  6. South Africa
    • Applications: 85,784
    • Applications resolved: 86,068
    • Applications granted: 83,688
    • Grant rate: 97%
    • Refusals: 1,941
  7. Algeria
    • Applications: 67,085
    • Applications resolved: 64,687
    • Applications granted: 21,075
    • Grant rate: 33%
    • Refusals: 43,551
  8. Thailand
    • Applications: 60,200
    • Applications resolved: 59,574
    • Applications granted: 56,542
    • Grant rate: 95%
    • Refusals: 2,622
  9. Ghana
    • Applications: 42,290
    • Applications resolved: 43,520
    • Applications granted: 19,310
    • Grant rate: 44%
    • Refusals: 23,861
  10. Philippines
    • Applications: 41,812
    • Applications resolved: 41,385
    • Applications granted: 35,262
    • Grant rate: 85%
    • Refusals: 5,847
  11. Egypt
    • Applications: 38,355
    • Applications resolved: 37,818
    • Applications granted: 30,503
    • Grant rate: 81%
    • Refusals: 7,132
  12. Indonesia
    • Applications: 36,505
    • Applications resolved: 36,384
    • Applications granted: 33,226
    • Grant rate: 91%
    • Refusals: 2,986
  13. Albania
    • Applications: 36,176
    • Applications resolved: 36,696
    • Applications granted: 24,139
    • Grant rate: 66%
    • Refusals: 12,506
  14. Bangladesh
    • Applications: 33,166
    • Applications resolved: 33,735
    • Applications granted: 22,445
    • Grant rate: 67%
    • Refusals: 11,167
  15. Russia
    • Applications: 32,156
    • Applications resolved: 34,753
    • Applications granted: 26,808
    • Grant rate: 77%
    • Refusals: 6,447
  16. Morocco
    • Applications: 30,403
    • Applications resolved: 30,711
    • Applications granted: 20,073
    • Grant rate: 65%
    • Refusals: 10,569
  17. Sri Lanka
    • Applications: 24,775
    • Applications resolved: 25,257
    • Applications granted: 19,923
    • Grant rate: 79%
    • Refusals: 5,239
  18. Ukraine
    • Applications: 22,387
    • Applications resolved: 22,483
    • Applications granted: 20,984
    • Grant rate: 93%
    • Refusals: 906
  19. Kenya
    • Applications: 17,958
    • Applications resolved: 18,017
    • Applications granted: 14,693
    • Grant rate: 82%
    • Refusals: 3,162
  20. Saudi Arabia
    • Applications: 16,656
    • Applications resolved: 18,950
    • Applications granted: 17,958
    • Grant rate: 95%
    • Refusals: 661
  21. Other Nationalities
    • Applications: 328,978
    • Applications resolved: 332,324
    • Applications granted: 253,506
    • Grant rate: 76%
    • Refusals: 75,927
  22. Total
    • Applications: 2,012,116
    • Applications resolved: 2,007,988
    • Applications granted: 1,554,667
    • Grant rate: 77%
    • Refusals: 440,737

This list provides a comprehensive view of the UK visitor visa approval rates across various countries, highlighting differences in visa approval rates which might be influenced by geopolitical factors, economic conditions, and documentation standards specific to each country.

3. UK Work Visa Approval Rate 2023


The UK work visa statistics for 2023 highlight a dynamic labor market characterized by significant growth and high demand for skilled professionals.

  • Total Applications:
    • 508,821
  • UK Visa Approval Rates 2023 (Work):
    • 95%
  • Insight:
    • These figures demonstrate the UK’s role as an inviting destination for global talent, balanced with selective acceptance to maintain a high-quality workforce.

UK Work Visa Approval Rate 2023: Analysis and Insights

  • “Worker” Category
    • UK Visa Approval Rates for Worker: 97%.
    • The category saw a growth of over 100%, signifying a strong demand for labor.
    • This substantial increase reflects the UK economy’s rejuvenation and efforts to fill sector-specific gaps.
  • Temporary Worker Visas
    • Approval Rate: 94%.
    • There was a 27% increase in applications, suggesting heightened demand for seasonal or short-term employment, potentially in sectors like agriculture, hospitality, or events.
  • Investor, Business, and Talent Category
    • Approval Rate: 95%.
    • This category experienced a 30% expansion, reaffirming the UK as a nurturing ground for innovation, business development, and specialized talents.
  • Other Work Visas and Exemptions
    • Approval Rate: 84%.
    • The comparatively lower rate may indicate more stringent checks or evolving criteria, highlighting the need for thoroughly prepared applications.

Economic Implications

The UK’s economic landscape has witnessed remarkable transformation between 2022 and 2023, with a 76.5% surge in work visas granted, signaling a dynamic and evolving job market. The data reflects not only a rejuvenated economy but also strategic initiatives to address labor demands in specific sectors.

UK Visa Success Rate by Country 2023 for Work Applications

The 2023 work visa statistics shed light on the success rates for various nationalities, reflecting the UK’s demand for international labor and the effectiveness of the application process.

Work Visa Applications and Outcomes by Nationality (Year Ending March 2023)

  1. India
    • Applications: 150,932
    • Applications resolved: 153,488
    • Applications granted: 150,405 (98%)
    • Refusals: 2,409
  2. Nigeria
    • Applications: 55,423
    • Applications resolved: 53,645
    • Applications granted: 49,787 (93%)
    • Refusals: 3,441
  3. Zimbabwe
    • Applications: 35,842
    • Applications resolved: 35,248
    • Applications granted: 33,329 (95%)
    • Refusals: 1,814
  4. Philippines
    • Applications: 29,153
    • Applications resolved: 29,678
    • Applications granted: 28,354 (96%)
    • Refusals: 1,159
  5. Pakistan
    • Applications: 16,375
    • Applications resolved: 16,228
    • Applications granted: 14,865 (92%)
    • Refusals: 1,223
  6. Australia
    • Applications: 13,640
    • Applications resolved: 13,791
    • Applications granted: 13,616 (99%)
    • Refusals: 53
  7. Ghana
    • Applications: 12,634
    • Applications resolved: 12,126
    • Applications granted: 11,225 (93%)
    • Refusals: 770
  8. United States
    • Applications: 12,350
    • Applications resolved: 12,493
    • Applications granted: 12,344 (99%)
    • Refusals: 63
  9. South Africa
    • Applications: 10,763
    • Applications resolved: 10,995
    • Applications granted: 10,557 (96%)
    • Refusals: 346
  10. Sri Lanka
    • Applications: 9,081
    • Applications resolved: 9,149
    • Applications granted: 8,859 (97%)
    • Refusals: 258
  11. Bangladesh
    • Applications: 7,135
    • Applications resolved: 6,217
    • Applications granted: 5,392 (87%)
    • Refusals: 773
  12. Ukraine
    • Applications: 6,897
    • Applications resolved: 7,522
    • Applications granted: 6,882 (91%)
    • Refusals: 19
  13. Russia
    • Applications: 6,576
    • Applications resolved: 7,003
    • Applications granted: 6,211 (89%)
    • Refusals: 699
  14. Nepal
    • Applications: 5,921
    • Applications resolved: 6,089
    • Applications granted: 5,854 (96%)
    • Refusals: 208
  15. France
    • Applications: 5,815
    • Applications resolved: 5,886
    • Applications granted: 5,730 (97%)
    • Refusals: 48
  16. Kyrgyzstan
    • Applications: 5,798
    • Applications resolved: 5,502
    • Applications granted: 5,480 (>99%)
    • Refusals: 19
  17. Uzbekistan
    • Applications: 5,728
    • Applications resolved: 5,758
    • Applications granted: 4,931 (86%)
    • Refusals: 823
  18. China
    • Applications: 5,587
    • Applications resolved: 5,581
    • Applications granted: 5,417 (97%)
    • Refusals: 112
  19. Canada
    • Applications: 5,493
    • Applications resolved: 5,596
    • Applications granted: 5,538 (99%)
    • Refusals: 25
  20. New Zealand
    • Applications: 5,455
    • Applications resolved: 5,342
    • Applications granted: 5,275 (99%)
    • Refusals: 16
  21. Other Nationalities
    • Applications: 102,223
    • Applications resolved: 104,174
    • Applications granted: 97,720 (94%)
    • Refusals: 4,967
  22. Total
    • Applications: 508,821
    • Applications resolved: 511,511
    • Applications granted: 487,771 (95%)
    • Refusals: 19,245

These statistics illustrate the high success rates for work visa applications across various nationalities, with particularly high approval rates for countries like India, Australia, and the United States. The data underscores the UK’s strong demand for skilled workers and the effectiveness of the visa application process.

4. UK Student Visa Success Rate 2023


The 2023 data for UK Study Visas reveals the country’s continuing appeal as a premier destination for academic pursuits, characterized by its blend of tradition and innovation.

  • Total Applications:
    • 642,702
  • Insight:
    • The substantial number of applications underscores the global appeal of the UK’s educational institutions, known for their academic excellence and reputation.
    • The growth in student visa applications suggests a post-pandemic resumption of regular academic activities.

UK Student Visa Approval Rate 2023: Analysis and Insights

Sponsored Study Visas

  • Approval Rate: 98%.
  • A significant indicator of strong institutional backing and well-structured application processes, leading to high success rates.
  • The 34.9% growth in this category highlights robust affiliations with UK educational institutions.

Other Study Visas

  • Approval Rate: 58%.
  • The stark contrast in approval rates compared to sponsored visas might be due to more stringent criteria, lack of institutional endorsements, or varying quality of applications.
  • The 9.6% dip in applications raises questions about the appeal for independent students or possibly tighter criteria for these visas.

UK Visa Acceptance Rate 2023 by Country for Sponsored Study Visas

The 2023 sponsored study visa statistics highlight the high success rates for various nationalities, emphasizing the UK’s appeal as a leading destination for international students.

Sponsored Study Visa Applications and Outcomes by Nationality (Year Ending March 2023)

  1. India
    • Applications: 182,571
    • Applications resolved: 184,210
    • Applications granted: 180,913 (98%)
    • Refusals: 2,998
  2. Nigeria
    • Applications: 126,713
    • Applications resolved: 128,833
    • Applications granted: 124,432 (97%)
    • Refusals: 4,083
  3. China
    • Applications: 101,077
    • Applications resolved: 101,530
    • Applications granted: 101,044 (>99%)
    • Refusals: 185
  4. Pakistan
    • Applications: 38,612
    • Applications resolved: 39,101
    • Applications granted: 38,203 (98%)
    • Refusals: 801
  5. Bangladesh
    • Applications: 20,391
    • Applications resolved: 20,661
    • Applications granted: 19,969 (97%)
    • Refusals: 589
  6. United States
    • Applications: 15,632
    • Applications resolved: 15,789
    • Applications granted: 15,614 (99%)
    • Refusals: 110
  7. Sri Lanka
    • Applications: 11,581
    • Applications resolved: 11,700
    • Applications granted: 11,606 (99%)
    • Refusals: 71
  8. Hong Kong
    • Applications: 7,914
    • Applications resolved: 7,945
    • Applications granted: 7,899 (99%)
    • Refusals: 17
  9. Ghana
    • Applications: 7,822
    • Applications resolved: 7,877
    • Applications granted: 6,917 (88%)
    • Refusals: 936
  10. Saudi Arabia
    • Applications: 7,802
    • Applications resolved: 7,898
    • Applications granted: 7,676 (97%)
    • Refusals: 189
  11. Malaysia
    • Applications: 7,135
    • Applications resolved: 7,164
    • Applications granted: 7,138 (>99%)
    • Refusals: 19
  12. Nepal
    • Applications: 6,906
    • Applications resolved: 6,982
    • Applications granted: 6,943 (99%)
    • Refusals: 36
  13. Thailand
    • Applications: 4,461
    • Applications resolved: 4,478
    • Applications granted: 4,457 (>99%)
    • Refusals: 6
  14. Iran
    • Applications: 4,452
    • Applications resolved: 4,482
    • Applications granted: 4,427 (99%)
    • Refusals: 47
  15. Kuwait
    • Applications: 4,239
    • Applications resolved: 4,255
    • Applications granted: 4,243 (>99%)
    • Refusals: 7
  16. France
    • Applications: 4,169
    • Applications resolved: 4,188
    • Applications granted: 4,109 (98%)
    • Refusals: 12
  17. Germany
    • Applications: 4,118
    • Applications resolved: 4,158
    • Applications granted: 4,080 (98%)
    • Refusals: 14
  18. Canada
    • Applications: 4,054
    • Applications resolved: 4,085
    • Applications granted: 4,055 (99%)
    • Refusals: 19
  19. Korea (South)
    • Applications: 3,928
    • Applications resolved: 3,952
    • Applications granted: 3,936 (>99%)
    • Refusals: 6
  20. Turkey
    • Applications: 3,768
    • Applications resolved: 3,795
    • Applications granted: 3,718 (98%)
    • Refusals: 62
  21. Other Nationalities
    • Applications: 67,540
    • Applications resolved: 67,982
    • Applications granted: 65,952 (97%)
    • Refusals: 1,541
  22. Total
    • Applications: 634,885
    • Applications resolved: 641,065
    • Applications granted: 627,331 (98%)
    • Refusals: 11,748

These statistics emphasize the high approval rates for sponsored study visas across various nationalities, showcasing the UK’s strong appeal to international students and its robust educational framework.

5. UK Visa Acceptance Rate 2023 for Family Visas


The 2023 statistics for Family Visas in the UK provide insights into the complexities of familial immigration, influenced by geopolitical factors and policy changes.

UK Family Visa Approval Rate 2023: Analysis and Insights

Visa Sub-Category

Geopolitical Influence and Trends

  • Family and Sponsorship Schemes for Ukraine:
    • Witnessed significant increases (91.9% and over 4000%, respectively), highlighting the UK’s role in providing refuge amid socio-political upheavals.
  • Post-Brexit Shifts:
    • The BN(O) visa route saw a 45.4% contraction, and EU-related permits experienced dips, marking tangible impacts of the post-Brexit landscape on family immigration dynamics.

UK Visa Success Rate by Country 2023 for Family Route

The 2023 family visa statistics provide a detailed look at the approval rates by nationality, highlighting key insights into the success and refusal rates for various countries.

Family Visa Applications and Outcomes by Nationality (Year Ending March 2023)

  1. Pakistan
    • Applications: 11,241
    • Applications resolved: 13,280
    • Applications granted: 12,334 (93%)
    • Refusals: 894
  2. India
    • Applications: 4,531
    • Applications resolved: 5,199
    • Applications granted: 4,784 (92%)
    • Refusals: 351
  3. Nepal
    • Applications: 3,744
    • Applications resolved: 4,340
    • Applications granted: 2,745 (63%)
    • Refusals: 1,592
  4. Syria
    • Applications: 2,994
    • Applications resolved: 1,788
    • Applications granted: 1,259 (70%)
    • Refusals: 510
  5. Afghanistan
    • Applications: 2,816
    • Applications resolved: 2,228
    • Applications granted: 1,247 (56%)
    • Refusals: 952
  6. United States
    • Applications: 2,816
    • Applications resolved: 3,232
    • Applications granted: 2,998 (93%)
    • Refusals: 176
  7. Bangladesh
    • Applications: 2,808
    • Applications resolved: 3,310
    • Applications granted: 3,053 (92%)
    • Refusals: 241
  8. Nigeria
    • Applications: 2,542
    • Applications resolved: 3,308
    • Applications granted: 2,684 (81%)
    • Refusals: 580
  9. South Africa
    • Applications: 2,061
    • Applications resolved: 2,491
    • Applications granted: 2,313 (93%)
    • Refusals: 154
  10. Iraq
    • Applications: 2,033
    • Applications resolved: 2,388
    • Applications granted: 2,279 (95%)
    • Refusals: 97
  11. Ghana
    • Applications: 1,959
    • Applications resolved: 2,369
    • Applications granted: 1,916 (81%)
    • Refusals: 441
  12. Iran
    • Applications: 1,910
    • Applications resolved: 1,673
    • Applications granted: 1,506 (90%)
    • Refusals: 149
  13. Eritrea
    • Applications: 1,885
    • Applications resolved: 1,336
    • Applications granted: 1,075 (80%)
    • Refusals: 255
  14. Philippines
    • Applications: 1,796
    • Applications resolved: 2,083
    • Applications granted: 1,855 (89%)
    • Refusals: 208
  15. Turkey
    • Applications: 1,728
    • Applications resolved: 1,852
    • Applications granted: 1,713 (92%)
    • Refusals: 131
  16. Sri Lanka
    • Applications: 1,351
    • Applications resolved: 1,472
    • Applications granted: 1,355 (92%)
    • Refusals: 109
  17. Sudan
    • Applications: 1,141
    • Applications resolved: 1,125
    • Applications granted: 871 (77%)
    • Refusals: 233
  18. Thailand
    • Applications: 998
    • Applications resolved: 1,166
    • Applications granted: 1,094 (94%)
    • Refusals: 69
  19. China
    • Applications: 947
    • Applications resolved: 1,002
    • Applications granted: 903 (90%)
    • Refusals: 83
  20. Albania
    • Applications: 812
    • Applications resolved: 874
    • Applications granted: 755 (86%)
    • Refusals: 117
  21. Other Nationalities
    • Applications: 17,927
    • Applications resolved: 19,497
    • Applications granted: 16,903 (87%)
    • Refusals: 2,342
  22. Total
    • Applications: 70,040
    • Applications resolved: 76,013
    • Applications granted: 65,642 (86%)
    • Refusals: 9,684

This data underscores the varying success rates for family visa applications from different countries, with notable high approval rates for countries such as the United States, India, and Pakistan.

For more detailed information, please refer UK Visa Success Rate 2019, UK Visa Rejection Rate 2020, UK Visa Success Rate 2021, and Immigration System Statistics Quarterly Release.


6. FAQs: UK Visa Statistics 2023: All You Need to Know


  1. What do the UK Visa Statistics 2023 reveal about the overall growth in visa applications from 2022 to 2023?

    The UK Visa Statistics 2023 indicate a significant 90% increase in total entry clearance visas from the previous year.

  2. How did the Brexit changes reflect in the UK Visa Statistics 2023?

    Brexit implications were clear in the UK Visa Statistics 2023, especially concerning EU-related permits. Notably, EEA Family Permits witnessed a 95.2% decline, while EUSS Family Permits dropped by 35.5%.

  3. How popular is the UK for international students as per the UK Visa Statistics 2023?

    The 2023 visa statistics affirm the UK’s allure for international students, with a 34.4% rise in total study visas.

  4. Which visa categories boasted the highest success rates in the UK Visa Statistics 2023?

    The UK Visa Statistics 2023 show that both work and study visas maintained high UK visa approval rates. The Worker visa category, for instance, had a commendable UK visa success rate 2023 of 97%, and Sponsored Study visas achieved a UK visa acceptance rate 2023 of 98%.

  5. Why were there notable refusals in the visitor visa category as per the UK Visa Statistics 2023?

    While the UK Visa Statistics 2023 don’t detail specific reasons, the UK visitor visa success rate 2023 of 77% suggests factors like inadequate documentation or not meeting specific requirements might have contributed to the refusals.

  6. Given the UK Visa Statistics 2023, what trends can be anticipated for future UK visa applications?

    Drawing from the UK Visa Statistics 2023, one might anticipate continued interest in work and study visas. However, geopolitical events, the UK’s evolving global policies, and post-pandemic travel behavior will undoubtedly shape the trends.