Immigration Specialists London

Embarking on a business venture in the UK is an exhilarating prospect and navigating the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa pathway is a key element of this journey. This comprehensive guide is designed to demystify the process, outlining eligibility criteria, application steps, extension guidelines, and providing practical tips to enhance your application’s success. Whether you’re aspiring to establish, take over, or direct a business in the UK, this guide equips you with essential insights and knowledge to confidently approach the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa process.


The Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa was replaced by the Innovator Visa. As of 2023, the Innovator Visa has been further replaced by the Innovator Founder Visa.

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Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa Policy Guidance

1. Guidance and Eligibility

Introduction to Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa

The Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa was a critical UK immigration pathway until March 2019, tailored for individuals planning to invest in, establish, or take over a UK business. Applicants required a minimum investment of £200,000 or £50,000 from specific funding sources. This visa offered a route to an initial three-year stay, extendable by two years, and eventually to Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR) and British citizenship.

Transition to Innovator Visa

As of March 29, 2019, the Innovator Visa UK replaced the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa. According to paragraph 245DB(a) of the Immigration Rules, existing Tier 1 Entrepreneur migrants can still apply for extensions and settlement under the original route until April 5, 2023, and April 5, 2025, respectively. This guidance is focused on assisting those eligible for extensions and settlement under these deadlines.

Historical Context and Success Rates

From 2008 to 2018, the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa, which succeeded other business immigration routes, processed 80,801 applications with a 59.20% average success rate. Notably, dependants’ application success rates were generally higher than those of main applicants.

Key Eligibility Criteria for Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa

  • Investment Funds:
    • Applicants needed £200,000 in investment funds, their own or from a third party.
    • This amount can be reduced to £50,000 if the funds come from certain specified sources such as UK venture capital firms or UK government departments.
    • Funds had to be in a regulated financial institution and free to transfer to the UK.
  • English Language Requirement:
    • Applicants must pass an English test at CEFR level B1 or hold a degree taught in English.
    • Nationals of majority English-speaking countries also met this criterion.
  • Maintenance Funds:
    • Applicants must show they have sufficient funds to support themselves and their dependents while in the UK.
    • Applicants from outside the UK needed £3,310, while those inside the UK on a Tier 1 Visa needed £945.
    • These funds had to be in the applicant’s bank account for 90 days before applying.
  • Business Plan:
    • Applicants needed to provide a detailed business plan demonstrating how they intend to establish or take over a UK business.
  • Genuine Entrepreneur Test:
    • Applicants needed to prove that they genuinely intended and were able to establish, take over, or become a director of one or more businesses in the UK within the next six months.
  • Job Creation:
    • The business must create at least two full-time jobs for persons settled in the UK, which must last for at least 12 months each.

2. Application Process

The application process for the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa was comprehensive and required detailed preparation to ensure success. Key components of the process included the Genuine Entrepreneur Test, a robust business plan, and a meticulously completed application form with supporting documents.

Genuine Entrepreneur Test

The Genuine Entrepreneur Test was a cornerstone of the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa application, designed to evaluate the authenticity and feasibility of the proposed business venture. Key assessment areas included:

  • Applicant’s Background: Focus on relevant experience, qualifications, and their alignment with the business idea.
  • Business Plan Viability: Scrutiny of the business plan’s credibility and potential for success.
  • Market Knowledge: Assessment of the applicant’s understanding of the UK market and thorough industry research.
  • Fund Availability: Verification of access to the necessary investment funds.
  • Success Criterion: Applicants had to convincingly demonstrate their commitment to establishing or directing a UK business within six months of visa issuance.

Business Plan Essentials

A critical element of the application was the business plan, which needed to comprehensively cover:

  • Business Activities: Description of proposed operations and services/products.
  • Market Research: Analysis of market trends, target audience, and competition.
  • Marketing Strategies: Plans for promotion, advertising, and reaching potential customers.
  • Financial Projections: Revenue, profit forecasts, and budgeting details.
  • Operational Plans: Day-to-day operational strategies and job creation plans.

Application Form and Supporting Documents

Applicants were required to meticulously prepare and submit:

  • Application Form: Accurately filled, either online or in paper format.
  • Investment Evidence: Bank statements or financial institution letters proving fund availability.
  • English Proficiency Proof: Test results or academic qualifications demonstrating language skills.
  • Maintenance Funds Evidence: Bank statements showcasing sufficient living funds.
  • Business Plan: Detailed and structured plan for the proposed venture.
  • Additional Documentation: CV, academic certificates, endorsements, etc.

Key to Success:

Complete and correct document submission within given deadlines was vital to avoid any application setbacks.

Structured Approach to the Application Process

This structured approach to the application process was designed to ensure that applicants could effectively demonstrate their suitability for the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa, aligning their business aspirations with UK immigration requirements.

By following these steps, applicants could enhance their chances of success:

  1. Research and Preparation: Thoroughly research UK market conditions and prepare a detailed business plan.
  2. Accurate Documentation: Ensure all documents, including financial evidence and proof of English proficiency, are accurate and up-to-date.
  3. Genuine Entrepreneur Test: Be prepared to convincingly demonstrate the authenticity of your business intentions and your ability to establish a viable business in the UK.
  4. Professional Advice: Consider seeking advice from immigration experts or legal advisors to navigate complex aspects of the application.

3. Extension Requirements

The Tier 1 Entrepreneur Extension plays a crucial role for entrepreneurs seeking to solidify their business presence in the UK. This extension is not just a formal procedure but a pivotal moment for applicants to validate their contribution to the UK economy and their commitment to their business venture. Understanding the critical aspects of this process, from job creation to business investment, is essential for a successful extension application.

Tier 1 Entrepreneur Extension Criteria and Details

  1. Job Creation
    • To qualify for an extension, applicants must demonstrate that they have created at least two full-time jobs for settled workers in the UK.
    • These jobs must have existed for a minimum of 12 months during the initial visa period.
    • Evidence Required:
      • Employment contracts detailing job roles and terms.
      • Wage slips indicating regular salary payments.
      • HMRC documents verifying tax and National Insurance contributions.
  2. Business Investment
    • Applicants must show that they have invested the required amount (At least £200,000 or £50,000 in certain cases) into one or more UK businesses within the first three years in the UK.
    • The investment should be directly related to the business activities and contribute to its growth.
    • Evidence Required:
      • Business bank statements showing the transfer of funds.
      • Audited accounts demonstrating the use of invested funds.
      • Invoices for purchases or services that directly relate to the business operations.
  3. Extension Application Process and Timeline
    • The extension application involves completing a detailed application form and submitting it along with comprehensive supporting documents.
    • This includes proof of investment, job creation, and other relevant criteria.
    • Steps in the Process:
      • Form Submission: The FLR application form must be filled out accurately and submitted online or in paper format.
      • Supporting Documents: Compile and submit evidence of investment, job creation, English language proficiency, maintenance funds, and an updated business plan.
      • Processing Time: The UK Home Office typically processes extension applications within eight weeks. It’s important to apply well before the current visa expires to avoid any legal complications.

4. Changes to Tier 1 Entrepreneur Rules

2016 Amendments

The Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa underwent significant changes in 2016 aimed at tightening the criteria to ensure that only genuine entrepreneurs could qualify. Key amendments included:

  • Genuineness Test:
    • Introduced for both initial applications and extensions, this required applicants to demonstrate they were genuine entrepreneurs with a credible business idea.
    • The test assessed the applicant’s intentions, business acumen, and ability to run a business in the UK.
  • Business Plan:
    • Applicants were required to submit a detailed business plan, showcasing their understanding of the business environment, market research, strategies, and financial projections.
    • This plan needed to reflect a viable and sustainable business idea.
  • Accelerated Settlement Route:
    • This route was introduced for entrepreneurs who could create at least 10 full-time jobs for settled workers or achieve a turnover of £5 million within three years.
    • This pathway allowed faster access to Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR).

These changes aimed to ensure that visas were granted only to genuine entrepreneurs, refining the eligibility criteria to enhance the program’s integrity.

2019 Rule Updates

In 2019, the UK government introduced substantial updates to the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa rules, leading to the establishment of the Innovator and Start-Up Visas. These new categories focused on attracting scalable and high-growth business ventures. Key updates included:

  • Shift to Innovator and Start-Up Visas:
    • The Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa was replaced by these new visa categories, which were designed to support innovative and scalable businesses.
  • Endorsement Requirement:
    • Applicants now require an endorsement from a UK higher education institution or a recognized business organization.
    • This endorsement validates the business idea’s potential and the applicant’s entrepreneurial capability.
  • Investment Funds:
    • The Innovator Visa requires a minimum of £50,000 in investment funds, which is significantly less than the Tier 1 Visa’s £200,000 or £50,000 threshold.
    • This reduction aims to make the visa more accessible to a wider range of entrepreneurs.
  • Start-Up Visa:
    • UK start-up visa does not demand a specific investment amount but focuses on applicants with genuine, innovative, and scalable business ideas.
    • The emphasis is on the potential for high growth and substantial contribution to the UK economy.

Despite these overhauls, existing Tier 1 Entrepreneur migrants in the UK could still apply for extensions and settlements until April 5, 2023, and April 5, 2025, respectively, according to paragraph 245DB(a) of the Immigration Rules. This transitional provision allowed those already on the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa to continue their business activities and progress towards settlement under the previous rules.

5. Interview Questions

Preparing for the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa Interview

Success in the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa interview hinges on thorough preparation and confidence in your business plan. Key tips include:

  • Preparation:
    • Familiarize yourself deeply with your business plan, ready to elaborate on financial projections, marketing strategies, and growth potential.
  • Honesty:
    • Always provide truthful answers about your background, experiences, and intentions for the business.
  • Confidence:
    • Confidently explain your business idea and its potential contribution to the UK economy.
  • Market Knowledge:
    • Show your understanding of the UK market, discussing specific opportunities and conditions that make it a suitable location for your business.
  • Organization:
    • Ensure you bring all necessary documents to the interview, including your business plan and evidence of investment funds.

Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa Common Interview Questions

  1. Business Idea and Development:
    • What is your business idea and how did you develop it?
  2. Market Research and Competitors:
    • Can you discuss your research on the UK market and your competitors?
  3. Economic Contribution:
    • How will your business benefit the UK economy?
  4. Funding and Investment:
    • How do you plan to fund your business and meet the investment requirements?
  5. Marketing Strategy:
    • What is your marketing strategy and customer acquisition plan?
  6. Job Creation:
    • How many jobs do you expect to create, and what roles will they entail?
  7. Long-Term Business Goals:
    • What are your long-term objectives for your business in the UK?
  8. Professional Background:
    • How does your professional experience support your business idea?
  9. Previous Business Experience:
    • Have you run a business before, and what were the outcomes?

6. Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR)

Holders of the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa can transition to Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR) in the UK through either standard or accelerated routes, based on specific criteria and achievements.

Standard ILR Route (5 Years)

  • Continuous Residence:
    • 5 years as a Tier 1 Entrepreneur or a mix of qualifying visas.
  • Investment Funds Requirements:
    • Minimum of £200,000 or £50,000, as initially required.
  • Job Creation:
    • At least 2 full-time jobs for settled workers, lasting 12 months each.
  • Knowledge of Life in the UK:
  • English Language Requirement:
    • Valid English test certificate or degree taught in English.
  • Absences:
    • Not more than 180 days outside the UK in any 12 months of the qualifying period.

Accelerated ILR Route (3 Years)

  • Continuous Residence:
    • 3 years under specific investment and growth conditions.
  • Investment Funds Requirements:
    • As per the initial application criteria.
  • Job Creation:
    • At least 2 full-time jobs for settled workers, lasting 12 months each.
  • Knowledge of Life in the UK:
    • Pass the Life in the UK Test.
  • English Language Requirement:
    • Valid English test certificate or degree taught in English.
  • Absences:
    • Not more than 180 days outside the UK in any 12 months of the qualifying period.

ILR Application Process

  1. Gather Documents: Compile supporting documents, including evidence of investment, job creation, maintenance funds, English proficiency, and Life in the UK Test results.
  2. Complete Application Form: Fill in the ILR application form accurately, either online or on paper.
  3. Pay Fees: Submit the required ILR application fee, subject to periodic changes.
  4. Biometric Information: Provide biometrics if necessary.
  5. Submit Application: Finalize the submission to the UK Home Office.
  6. Processing Time:

Successful ILR applicants gain the freedom to live and work in the UK without immigration limits and can consider applying for British citizenship, adhering to further residency and naturalization conditions.

7. Common Refusal Reasons

The Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa can be refused for several reasons. Understanding these reasons and preparing adequately for reapplication is crucial.

Common Refusal Reasons and Tips for Reapplication

  1. Insufficient or Inappropriate Investment Funds
    • Tip: Provide detailed, transparent evidence of investment funds, such as bank statements or share certificates.
  2. Inadequate Business Plan
    • Tip: Revise your business plan for depth, accuracy, and feasibility. Consider professional consulting for improvement.
  3. Failure to Pass the Genuine Entrepreneur Test
    • Tip: Strengthen evidence of business experience, market research, and business viability.
  4. Insufficient Evidence of English Proficiency
    • Tip: Submit valid English test results or other acceptable proof of English proficiency.
  5. Inadequate Maintenance Funds
    • Tip: Ensure clear proof of sufficient personal funds for UK support.

Reapplication Process

  1. Review Refusal Letter
    • Understand specific reasons for refusal in the rejection letter to target improvements.
  2. Gather Additional Evidence
    • Collect more documents or information to address refusal reasons.
  3. Seek Professional Advice
    • Consult with immigration experts for insights and strategy.
  4. Revise Application
    • Make necessary changes to your application, particularly in areas highlighted in the refusal.
  5. Submit New Application
    • Reapply with a complete, revised application and necessary fees.

Important Notes for Reapplicants

  • Fees: Be prepared to pay the application fees again for the new submission.
  • No Guarantee: Even with improvements, there’s no absolute guarantee of approval.
  • Comprehensive Approach: Address each refusal reason thoroughly to enhance your chances of a successful reapplication.

Addressing these common reasons comprehensively and seeking expert advice can significantly improve the likelihood of a successful Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa application.

8. FAQs: Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa Requirements

  1. What is a Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa?

    The Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa was a UK visa category designed for non-European entrepreneurs who wanted to start or take over an existing business in the UK.

  2. What were the financial requirements for this visa?

    Applicants needed to have access to at least £200,000 in investment funds, or £50,000 in some specific circumstances.

  3. Is the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa still open for new applications?

    No, this visa category was replaced by the Innovator Visa and Start-up Visa in March 2019.

  4. What is the Genuine Entrepreneur Test?

    It was an evaluation to assess the credibility and viability of the applicant’s business plan and intentions.

  5. Can existing Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa holders extend their stay?

    Yes, those already in the UK under this category could apply for extensions and settlements until specific dates.

  6. What are the key differences between the Tier 1 Entrepreneur and Innovator Visas?

    The Innovator Visa focuses on scalable, high-growth businesses and requires a lower investment amount (£50,000) and an endorsement from an approved UK body.

  7. What is the job creation requirement for the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa?

    Applicants needed to create at least two full-time jobs for settled workers in the UK.

  8. Can Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa holders apply for Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR)?

    Yes, after completing a continuous residence period of 5 years (or 3 years in some cases), they could apply for ILR.

  9. What are common reasons for Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa refusals?

    Common reasons include inadequate business plans, failure to meet the Genuine Entrepreneur Test, insufficient investment funds, and lack of English proficiency.

  10. What should I do if my Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa application is refused?

    Analyze the refusal reasons, gather additional evidence, possibly seek professional advice, revise your application, and reapply.