If you’re planning to join your partner in the United Kingdom, obtaining a UK Spouse Visa is a crucial step towards building your life together. This visa enables non-EEA nationals to reside with their UK-based spouse or partner, providing the opportunity to work, study, and enjoy life in the UK as a family. However, navigating the intricate requirements and application process can be challenging. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll cover the essential aspects of the UK Spouse Visa, from eligibility criteria to financial requirements and more, to help you make a successful application.
Maximizing Your Chances of Success
Thoroughly understanding the requirements and application process for a UK Spouse Visa is vital to maximize your chances of success. The Home Office is known for its strict adherence to the rules, and even minor mistakes or omissions in your application can lead to refusal. By familiarizing yourself with the eligibility criteria, application process, and required documents, you’ll be better prepared to submit an accurate and complete application, smoothing the path to your new life in the UK.
It’s essential to note that immigration rules and regulations are subject to change. While this guide offers a comprehensive overview of the UK Spouse Visa process, we recommend that you always consult the official UK government website or seek advice from an immigration professional to ensure you have the most up-to-date information. Changes to rules and regulations can impact eligibility criteria, application processes, and even success rates, so staying informed is vital for a successful outcome.
A Decade of UK Spouse Visa Success and Refusal Rates
Between 2008 and 2017, the UK received a total of 406,466 spouse or partner visa applications. Of the 414,054 applications resolved during this period, 324,125 visas were granted, resulting in a 10-year average success rate of 78.28%. The UK spouse visa success rate experienced a dip between 2012 and 2014, reaching its lowest point of 70.35% in 2014. Since then, the success rate has gradually increased, reaching 82.49% in 2017, which is more than 4% higher than the 10-year average.
Conversely, 86,315 applications were refused during this period, with an average refusal rate of 20.85%. The highest refusal rate was recorded in 2014 at 27.40%, while the lowest rates were observed in 2011 (15.63%), 2008 (16.28%), and 2017 (16.87%). The reduced refusal rate in 2017 is a positive indication for genuine applicants.
2. Eligibility Criteria for the UK Spouse Visa
To qualify for a UK Spouse Visa, both you and your partner must meet a set of eligibility criteria. These requirements ensure that your relationship is genuine, you can support yourselves financially, and you can communicate effectively in English. Additionally, you must provide evidence that you have adequate accommodation in the UK. In this section, we’ll discuss the key eligibility criteria for the UK Spouse Visa.
UK Spouse Visa Relationship Requirements
To be eligible for a UK Spouse Visa, you must prove that you have a genuine and subsisting relationship with your partner. This means that your relationship must be real, ongoing, and not entered into for immigration purposes. You must meet one of the following conditions:
- Be legally married to your partner, and your marriage must be recognized in the UK.
- Be in a civil partnership that is recognized in the UK.
- Be in a durable (long-term) relationship akin to marriage or civil partnership for at least two years.
You’ll also need to demonstrate your intention to live together permanently in the UK. To prove your relationship is genuine, you may be asked to provide evidence such as photographs, correspondence, proof of joint financial responsibilities, or statements from friends and family.
UK Spouse Visa Financial Requirements
To be eligible for a UK Spouse Visa, you must meet the financial requirements set out in Appendix FM of the Immigration Rules. The UK-based sponsor (your partner) must have a minimum income of £18,600 per year or have sufficient savings to meet the requirement. If you have children who are also applying for visas, the financial requirement increases by £3,800 for the first child and £2,400 for each additional child.
You can meet the financial requirement through employment, self-employment, pension, savings, or a combination of these sources. You’ll need to provide evidence of your income, such as payslips, bank statements, or tax documents.
UK Spouse Visa English Language Requirements
Applicants for a UK Spouse Visa must demonstrate a basic knowledge of English by meeting the English language requirements outlined in Appendix FM. You’ll need to provide evidence that you:
- Are a national of a majority English-speaking country, or
- Have passed an approved English language test at the A1 level or higher from the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), or
- Hold a degree taught or researched in English, which must be equivalent to a UK bachelor’s degree or higher.
UK Spouse Visa Accommodation Requirements
Finally, you must provide evidence that you have suitable accommodation available in the UK. This means that you and your partner will have a place to live without overcrowding and that meets the Housing Act 1985 standards. You’ll need to submit documents such as a tenancy agreement, mortgage statement, or a letter from your partner’s landlord or homeowner confirming your living arrangements.
3. Application Process for the UK Spouse Visa
Understanding the application process for the UK Spouse Visa is essential to increase your chances of success. In this section, we’ll walk you through the steps involved, including the differences between entry clearance and leave to remain, completing the online application form, gathering the required supporting documents, and paying the necessary visa application fees.
Depending on your circumstances, you’ll either apply for entry clearance or leave to remain as a spouse:
- Entry Clearance: If you are currently living outside the UK, you must apply for entry clearance before coming to the UK as a spouse. This is essentially a visa that allows you to enter the UK and join your partner.
- Leave to Remain: If you are already living in the UK on a different visa, you can apply for leave to remain as a spouse. This means you’re requesting permission to stay in the UK as a spouse without having to leave the country and apply for entry clearance.
The application process for a UK Spouse Visa starts with completing the online application form. You can find the appropriate form on the UK government’s website (gov.uk). The form will ask for detailed information about you, your partner, your relationship, your finances, and your living arrangements. Make sure you provide accurate and complete information to avoid delays or refusals.
Along with your online application, you’ll need to submit various supporting documents to prove your eligibility. These may include:
- Proof of your relationship, such as marriage or civil partnership certificates, photographs, or correspondence.
- Evidence of meeting the financial requirements, like payslips, bank statements, or tax documents.
- Proof of English language proficiency, such as test results, degree certificates, or a valid passport from a majority English-speaking country.
- Accommodation evidence, including tenancy agreements, mortgage statements, or letters from your partner’s landlord or homeowner.
Make sure your documents are well-organized, legible, and translated into English if necessary.
The fees for a UK Spouse Visa application depend on whether you’re applying for entry clearance or leave to remain. As of September 2021, the fees are:
- Entry Clearance: £1,523 for applications made outside the UK.
- Leave to Remain: £1,033 for applications made within the UK.
In addition to the application fees, you may need to pay the Immigration Health Surcharge (IHS), which grants you access to the National Health Service (NHS) during your stay in the UK. The IHS is typically £624 per year for each applicant.
Once you’ve submitted your application and paid the fees, you’ll need to attend a biometric appointment to provide your fingerprints and photograph. After that, your application will be reviewed by the Home Office, and you’ll receive a decision, usually within 12 weeks.
4. 5-Year Route vs. 10-Year Route for UK Spouse Visa
When applying for a UK Spouse Visa, you’ll need to consider whether to follow the 5-year route or the 10-year route. Both routes lead to Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR), which allows you to live and work in the UK without restrictions. In this section, we’ll discuss the differences between these routes, the eligibility criteria for each, and the pros and cons of choosing one over the other.
Differences Between the Two Routes
- 5-Year Route: This route consists of an initial 2.5-year period, followed by an extension for another 2.5 years. After a total of 5 years, you’ll be eligible to apply for ILR, provided you meet the requirements.
- 10-Year Route: The 10-year route is for those who don’t meet the financial requirements for the 5-year route but still have a genuine and subsisting relationship with their partner. This route involves four 2.5-year periods, after which you can apply for ILR.
Eligibility for Each Route
- 5-Year Route: To be eligible for the 5-year route, you must meet the financial requirements set by the UK government. This includes the minimum income threshold of £18,600 per year or the equivalent in savings.
- 10-Year Route: The 10-year route is for applicants who don’t meet the financial requirements of the 5-year route. However, you must still prove that you have a genuine and subsisting relationship with your partner and meet the other eligibility criteria, such as English language proficiency and accommodation requirements.
Pros and Cons of Each Route
- Faster path to ILR, allowing you to settle in the UK more quickly.
- Less time spent dealing with visa extensions and associated fees.
- More financial stability due to meeting the minimum income threshold.
- Requires a higher income or savings to qualify.
- Rejection of the 5-year route application may require you to apply for the 10-year route, which could delay your ILR timeline.
- Available to those who don’t meet the financial requirements for the 5-year route.
- Provides an opportunity to remain in the UK with your partner despite not meeting the minimum income threshold.
- Takes longer to achieve ILR, requiring a total of 10 years in the UK.
- Involves more visa extensions, which can be time-consuming and expensive.
When choosing between the 5-year and 10-year routes, consider your individual circumstances, financial stability, and long-term goals. Each route has its advantages and disadvantages, so it’s essential to make an informed decision that best suits your needs and situation.
5. Financial Requirements in Detail for UK Spouse Visa
A crucial aspect of the UK Spouse Visa application is meeting the financial requirements. The UK government has set specific criteria to ensure that applicants can support themselves and their families without relying on public funds. In this section, we’ll delve into the details of the financial requirements, including the minimum income threshold, savings, employment and self-employment evidence, and exemptions and exceptions.
The minimum income threshold for a UK Spouse Visa is currently £18,600 per year. If you have children, the threshold increases by £3,800 for the first child and an additional £2,400 for each subsequent child. You can meet this requirement through various sources, including employment, self-employment, pension, or a combination of these. You must have been earning this amount for at least six months before submitting the application.
If you don’t meet the minimum income threshold through your employment or other sources, you can use your savings to meet the requirement. You must have a minimum of £16,000 in savings, plus 2.5 times the shortfall between your income and the minimum income threshold. The savings must be held in a bank account for at least six months before applying.
To prove your financial stability, you’ll need to provide evidence of your income. For employed applicants, this may include payslips, bank statements, and a letter from your employer. For self-employed applicants, you’ll need to provide documents such as tax returns, business bank statements, and a letter from your accountant. It’s essential to submit comprehensive evidence to avoid delays or potential refusals.
Some applicants may be exempt from meeting the financial requirements. These exemptions typically apply to those receiving specific benefits, such as Disability Living Allowance, Personal Independence Payment, or Carer’s Allowance. If you’re exempt, you’ll need to provide evidence of the benefits you receive, and you’ll be assessed based on your ability to maintain and accommodate your spouse without relying on public funds.
6. Extending Your UK Spouse Visa
When your initial UK Spouse Visa is nearing its expiration, you’ll need to apply for an extension to continue living with your partner in the UK. In this section, we’ll discuss the requirements for extending your Spouse Visa, the application process and fees, and the consequences of not meeting these requirements.
To extend your UK Spouse Visa, you’ll need to meet the following requirements:
- Financial: You must still meet the financial requirements, as mentioned in Section 5, either through income, savings, or a combination of both.
- Relationship: You need to demonstrate that your relationship with your spouse is genuine and subsisting, and you intend to continue living together in the UK.
- English Language: You must meet the English language requirement at level A2 or higher, as per the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).
- Accommodation: You need to provide evidence of suitable accommodation for you and your family in the UK.
To extend your Spouse Visa, you’ll need to complete the online application form (FLR(M)) and pay the application fee, which is currently £1,033 (as of September 2021). You’ll also need to pay the Immigration Health Surcharge (IHS), which costs £624 per year.
You must submit the required supporting documents, including evidence of your relationship, financial stability, English language proficiency, and accommodation. It’s crucial to apply for the extension before your current visa expires to avoid becoming an overstayer.
Failing to meet the extension requirements or not applying in time may result in the refusal of your application, and you could be asked to leave the UK. This could also negatively impact any future visa applications. Therefore, it’s essential to ensure you meet the necessary requirements and apply for the extension before your current visa expires.
In conclusion, extending your UK Spouse Visa is an essential step to continue living with your partner in the UK. Make sure to meet the requirements, understand the application process and fees, and be aware of the consequences of not meeting the requirements to ensure a successful extension application.
7. Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR)
Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR) is a form of permanent residency that allows you to live in the UK without any time restrictions. After spending a certain amount of time on a Spouse Visa, you may become eligible for ILR. In this section, we’ll discuss UK spouse visa to ILR requirements, application process and fees, and the consequences of not meeting these requirements.
To qualify for ILR, you must meet the following requirements:
- Residency: You must have lived in the UK for at least five years on a Spouse Visa if you’re on the 5-Year Route, or 10 years if you’re on the 10-Year Route.
- Financial: You must still meet the financial requirements outlined in Section 5.
- Relationship: Your relationship with your spouse must be genuine and subsisting, and you must intend to continue living together in the UK.
- English Language: You need to demonstrate English language proficiency at level B1 or higher on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).
- Life in the UK Test: You must pass the Life in the UK Test, a multiple-choice exam that covers British history, culture, and traditions.
- Absences: You should not have excessive absences from the UK during your qualifying period.
To apply for ILR, complete the online SET(M) application form and pay the ILR application fee, which is currently £2,389 (as of September 2021). You’ll need to submit supporting documents to prove you meet the requirements, including evidence of your relationship, financial stability, English language proficiency, and successful completion of the Life in the UK Test.
If you do not meet the requirements for ILR or your application is refused, you may need to extend your Spouse Visa and continue living in the UK on a temporary basis. Failing to meet the ILR requirements can also negatively impact your future immigration status in the UK, so it’s crucial to ensure you meet the necessary criteria before applying.
8. Common Reasons for UK Spouse Visa Refusal
Applying for a UK Spouse Visa can be a complex process, and sometimes applications are refused. In this section, we’ll cover common reasons for refusal and offer guidance on how to address these issues to improve your chances of success.
One common reason for Spouse Visa refusal is insufficient evidence of a genuine and subsisting relationship. To address this issue:
- Provide detailed proof of your relationship, including photographs, chat logs, emails, and letters.
- Submit evidence of visits, such as travel tickets and boarding passes.
- Include testimonies from friends and family members who can vouch for your relationship.
- Share evidence of joint financial responsibilities, such as shared bank accounts, utility bills, or rental agreements.
Another common reason for refusal is failure to meet the financial requirements outlined in Appendix FM. To address this issue:
- Review the financial requirements in Section 5 and ensure you meet them.
- Provide clear evidence of your income, savings, and any other relevant financial resources.
- If you’re employed or self-employed, submit payslips, bank statements, and tax returns as proof of your earnings.
- If you’re relying on disability benefits or other exemptions, provide the necessary documentation.
Submitting an incomplete or incorrect application can lead to a refusal. To avoid this issue:
- Double-check all the information you’ve provided in the application form for accuracy.
- Ensure you’ve completed all required sections of the form and uploaded all necessary supporting documents.
- Review the guidance provided by the UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) website and follow the instructions carefully.
- Consider seeking professional advice from an immigration adviser if you’re unsure about any aspect of your application.
For more information on UK spouse visa requirements and potential reasons for refusal, please consult Appendix FM: Immigration Rules.